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Chapter V – Of Presentment

Section 61 – Presentment for acceptance

A bill of exchange payable after sight must, if no time or place is specified therein for presentment, be presented to the drawee thereof for acceptance, if he can, after reasonable search, be found, by a person entitled to demand acceptance, within a reasonable time after it is drawn, and in business hours on a business day. In default of such presentment, no party thereto is liable thereon to the person making such default.
If the drawee cannot, after reasonable search, be found, the bill is dishonoured.
If the bill is directed to the drawee at a particular place, it must be presented at that place; and if at the due date for presentment he cannot, after reasonable search, be found there, the bill is dishonoured.
Where authorized by agreement or usage, a presentment through the post office by means of a registered letter is sufficient.

Section 62 – Presentment of promissory note for sight

A promissory note, payable at a certain period after sight, must be presented to the maker thereof for sight (if he can after reasonable search be found) by a person entitled to demand payment, within a reasonable time after it is made and in business hours on a business day. In default of such presentment, no party thereto is liable thereon to the person making such default.

Section 63 – Drawee’s time for deliberation

The holder must, if so required by the drawee of a bill of exchange presented to him for acceptance, allow the drawee forty-eight hours (exclusive of public holidays) to consider whether he will accept it.

Section 64 – Presentment for payment

Promissory notes, bills of exchange and cheques must be presented for payment to the maker, acceptor or drawee thereof respectively, by or on behalf of the holder as hereinafter provided. In default of such presentment, the other parties thereto are not liable thereon to such holder.
Where authorized by agreement or usage, a presentment through the post office by means of a registered letter is sufficient.

Exceptions

Where a promissory note is payable on demand and is not payable at a specified place, no presentment is necessary in order to charge the maker thereof.

Section 65 – Hours for presentment

Presentment for payment must be made during the usual hours of business, and, if at a banker’s, within
banking hours.

Section 66 – Presentment for payment of instrument payable after date or sight

A promissory note or bill of exchange, made payable at a specified period after date or sight thereof, must be presented for payment at maturity.

Section 67 – Presentment for payment of promissory note payable by instalments

A promissory note payable by instalments must be presented for payment on the third day after the date fixed for payment of each instalment; and non-payment on such presentment has the same effect as non-payment of a note at maturity.

Section 68 – Presentment for payment of instrument payable at specified place and not else where

A promissory note, bill of exchange or cheque made, drawn or accepted payable at a specified place and not elsewhere must, in order to charge any party thereto, be presented for payment at that place.

Section 69 – Instrument payable at specified place

A promissory note or bill of exchange made, drawn or accepted payable at a specified place must, in order to charge the maker or drawer thereof, be presented for payment at that place.

Section 70 – Presentment where no exclusive place specified

A promissory note or bill of exchange, not made payable as mentioned in sections 68 and 69, must be presented for payment at the place of business (if any), or at the usual residence, of the maker, drawee or acceptor thereof, as the case may be.

Section 71 – Presentment when maker, etc., has no known place of business or residence.

If the maker, drawee or acceptor of a negotiable instrument has no known place of business or fixed residence, and no place is specified in the instrument for presentment for acceptance or payment, such presentment may be made to him in person wherever be can be found.

Section 72 – Presentment of cheque to charge drawer

Subject to the provisions of section 84, a cheque must, in order to charge the drawer, be presented at the bank upon which it is drawn before the relation between the drawer and his banker has been altered to the prejudice of the drawer.

Section 73 – Presentment of cheque to charge any other person

A cheque must, in order to charge any person except the drawer, be presented within a reasonable time after delivery thereof by such person.

Section 74 – Presentment of instrument payable on demand

Subject to the provisions of section 31, a negotiable instrument payable on demand must be presented for payment within a reasonable time after it is received by the holder.

Section 75 – Presentment by or to agent, representative of deceased, or assignee of insolvent

Presentment for acceptance or payment may be made to the duly authorized agent of the drawee, maker or acceptor, as the case may be, or, where the drawee, maker or acceptor has died, to his legal representative, or, where he has been declared an insolvent, to his assignee.

Section 75A – Excuse for delay in presentment for acceptance or payment

Delay in presentment for acceptance or payment is excused if the delay is caused by circumstances beyond the control of the holder, and not imputable to his default, misconduct or negligence. When the cause of delay ceases to operate, presentment must be made within a reasonable time.

Section 76 – When presentment unnecessary

No presentment for payment is necessary, and the instrument is dishonoured at the due date for presentment, in any of the following cases:

  1. if the maker, drawee or acceptor intentionally prevents the presentment of the instrument, or, if the instrument being payable at his place of business, he closes such place on a business day during the usual business hours, or, if the instrument being payable at some other specified place, neither he nor any person authorized to pay it attends at such place during the usual business hours, or, if the instrument not being payable at any specified place, he cannot after due search be found;
  2. as against any party sought to be charged therewith, if he has engaged to pay notwithstanding non-presentment;
  3. as against any party if, after maturity, with knowledge that the instrument has not been presented, he makes a part payment on account of the amount due on the instrument, or promises to pay the amount due thereon in whole or in part, or otherwise waives his right to take advantage of any default in presentment for payment;
  4. as against the drawer, if the drawer could not suffer damage from the want of such presentment.

Section 77 – Liability of banker for negligently dealing with bill presented for payment

When a bill of exchange, accepted payable at a specified bank, has been duly presented there for payment and dishonoured, if the banker so negligently or improperly keeps, deals with or delivers back such bill as to cause loss to the holder, he must compensate the holder for such loss.